Economy and Society: The Evolution of the Greek World in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods


The Programme "Economy and Society: The Evolution of the Greek World in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods" has derived from the former Southern Greece Programme, which was founded in 1984.

The main objective of the Programme is to give impetus to historical research on the ancient Greek world on selected topics, with focus on the area of proper Greece during the Roman period. Research conducted in the framework of the Programme, however, extends beyond the aforementioned time and space limits, given the wide range of interests of its members and the research projects taken over by them in the past.

The main research directions of the Programme concern the economy, finance and function of markets, the social structure of Greek poleis and Roman colonies, the relations of the cities with their citizens and with the central Roman government, the organization of the rural space, and the civic religious life.

Special interest is given to the study and publication of the primary evidence (philological, epigraphic and numismatic sources) as well as to the fostering of projects which can serve as basic tools for further historical research (prosopography and onomastics, epigraphic and numismatic corpora).


The Southern Greece Programme was directed since its foundation (1984) to 2010 by Prof. A. Rizakis. From January 2011 it was headed by Anna Michailidou, Director of Research, until December 2011, when Ch. Papageorgiadou became the coordinator.


Charikleia Papageorgiadou, Research Director
Styliani Mendoni, Senior Researcher
Sophia Zoumbaki, Senior Researcher
Franceso Camia, Associate Researcher
Research Directors, Emeriti:
Athanasios D. Rizakis
Anna Michailidou

External Collaborators:
Mantha Zarmakoupi, Marie Curie Intra-European Fellow, Project FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IEF, entitled UrbaNetworks (Grant Agreement n° PIEF-GA-2012-331969 under the auspices of NHRF).
Website of the program:


Ongoing Projects

1. "Numismatics and Economy", Ch. Papageorgiadou, Research Director
Α. The place of coins and coinage in the financial plateau of the ancient societies (the study of the pre-numismatic stage of the exchange transactions is conducted by the Director Emeritus Dr A. Michaelidou).
Β. Coinage and numismatic circulation in specific regions form the archaic period to the late antiquity.
C. Financial factors for the evolution of the monetary economy of Roman times in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans (the penetration of the Roman coins, the foundation of colonies, the imperial economic policy).
D. The Open Economy in the antiquity and the Financial markets in the ancient world.

2. "Polis and Chora", Lina Mendoni, Senior Researcher
The organization of the rural space and the history of landscape.

3. "Institutions, social and economic organization of the Greek cities and the roman colonies", Sophia Zoumbaki, Senior Researcher
A. Social and geographical mobility and the role of foreigners in the Greek cities.
B. The economy in the Roman province of Achaia (in collaboration with the Director Emeritus Dr A. Rizakis).
C. The relations between Greek poleis and the Roman central authorities, and especially the diffusion of Roman citizenship and Roman names.
D. The public buildings programmes during the Roman period, focusing on their planning and financing and on the role of civic institutions, benefactors and Roman authorities.

4. "Religion and society", Francesco Camia, Associate Researcher
Α. The religious landscape of Roman Greece (cultic aspects, social dimensions, institutions).
Β. Economic aspects of religious life in Greek cities.
C. Aspects of religious identity in Greece in the Roman period (continuity, innovations, influences, syncretism).

5. "The 'economy of the sacred' in Roman Greece. Sanctuaries and economics in the Greek peninsula under Roman rule", a common project of the members of the Programme.
The socio-economic implications of the role of the sanctuaries and the various activities related to them in the Greek poleis during the Roman period.

In parallel, two ongoing projects are conducted by the Directors Emeriti, Dr. Rizakis on the cultural identity in Roman times, and Dr. Michailidou on the management of the metals and the laborers in the mycenean palaces as detected in the Grammar B' tablets.


Achaia und Elis in der Antike, Rizakis A.D. Akten des 1. Internationalen Symposiums, Athen, 19-21 Mai 1989 [MΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 13] Athen 1991

Paysages d'Achaie I: le bassin du Peiros et la plaine occidentale, Rizakis A.D. [MΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 15] Athenes 1992

Achaie I. Sources textuelles et histoire regionale, Rizakis A.D. [MΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 20] Athenes 1995

The coinage of Kea, Papageorgiadou-Banis Ch. [MΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 24] Athens 1997

Achaie II. La cite de Patras: epigraphie et histoire, Rizakis A.D. [MΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 25] Athenes 1998

KEA-KYTHNOS: History and Archaeology, Proceedings of an International Symposium, 22-25 June 1994, Kea-Kythnos. Mendoni L.G., Mazarakis-Ainian A.J. (eds) [MΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 27] Athens 1998

Αχαϊκό τοπίο ΙΙ. Δύμη και Δυμαία χώρα - Paysages d'Achaie II. Dyme et son territoire. Actes du colloque international ''Dymaia et Bouprasia'' (Kato Achaia, 6-8 octobre 1995). Rizais A.D. (ed). [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 29] Athenes 2000

Roman Peloponnese I: Roman personal names in their social context (Achaia, Arcadia, Argolis, Corinthia and Eleia). Rizakis A.D., Zoumbaki S. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 31] Athens 2001

Elis und Olympia in der Kaiserzeit. Das Leben einer Gesellschaft zwischen Stadt und Heiligtum auf prosopographischer Grundlage. Zoumbaki S. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 32] Athen 2001

Manufacture and Measurement: Counting, Measuring and Recording Craft Items in Early Aegean Societies. Michailidou A. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 33] Athens 2001

Roman Peloponnese II: Roman Personal Names in their Social Context (Laconia and Messenia). Rizakis Α.D., Zoumbaki S., Lepenioti C. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 36] Athens 2004

Perceptions and Evaluation of the Cultural Landscapes. Proceedings of an International Symposium (Zakynthos, December 1997). Doukellis P., Mendoni L. (eds). [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 38] Athens 2004

The Numismatic Iconography of the Roman Colonies in Greece: Local Spirit and the Expression of Imperial Policy. Papageorgiadou-Bani H. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 39] Athens 2004

Prosopographie der Eleer bis zum 1. Jh. v. Chr. Zoumbaki S. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 40] Athen 2005

Weight and Value in Pre-Coinage Societies: an introduction. Michailidou A. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 42] Athens 2005

Les Dieux et les Dieux Augustes : le culte imperial en Grece sous les Julio-claudiens et les Flaviens : etudes epigraphiques et archeologiques. Maria Kantirea. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 50] Athenes 2007

Sailing in the Aegean : Readings on the Economy and Trade Routes. Charikleia Papageorgiadou-Banis and Angeliki Giannikouri (eds). [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 53] Athens 2008

Achaie III. Les cites acheennes : epigraphie et histoire. Rizakis A.D.
[ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 55] Athenes 2008

Roman names in the Cyclades. Part I. Mendoni L.G., and, Zoumbaki S.B. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 56] Athens 2008

Weight and Value in Pre-Societies: vol.II. Sidelights on measurement from the Aegean and the Orient. Michailidou A. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 61] Athens 2008

Roman Peloponnese III: Society, economy and culture under the Roman Empire: continuity and innovation. Rizakis Α.D., Lepenioti C. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 63] Athens 2010

Theoi Sebastoi. Il culto degli imperatori romani in Grecia (provincia Achaia) nel secondo secolo d.C. Camia Fr. [ΜΕΛΕΤΗΜΑΤΑ 65] Atene 2011

Other publications
Κυκλάδες. Ιστορία του Τοπίου και Τοπικές Ιστορίες. Μενδώνη Λ.Γ., Μάργαρης Ν. (εκδ.) [Συνέκδοση Υ.ΠΕ.ΧΩ.Δ.Ε, ΥΠ.Ε.Π.Θ. και ΕΙΕ/ΚΕΡΑ, Αθήνα 1998

Ιστορία του Τοπίου και Τοπικές Ιστορίες. Από το φυσικό περιβάλλον στο ιστορικό τοπίο. Πιλοτική Εφαρμογή στις Κυκλάδες. Ενδεικτική βιβλιογραφία. Μενδώνη Λ.Γ. (εκδ.) [Συνέκδοση Υ.ΠΕ.ΧΩ.Δ.Ε, ΥΠ.Ε.Π.Θ. και ΕΙΕ/ΚΕΡΑ, Αθήνα 1997

Patrasso colonia di Augusto e le trasformazioni culturali, politiche ed economiche della Provincia di Acaia agli inizi dell' eta imperiale romana : atti del Convegno Internazionale, Patrasso 23-24 marzo 2006. Η Πάτρα αποικία του Αυγούστου και οι πολιτιστικές, πολιτικές και οικονομικές αλλαγές της Επαρχίας της Αχαϊας στις αρχές της αυτοκρατορικής ρωμαϊκής εποχής : πρακτικά του Διεθνούς Συνεδρίου, Πάτρα 23-24 Μαρτίου 2006. Direttore della collana, E. Greco; redazione, E. Carando, A.G. Benvenuti [TRIPODES 8, Atene: Scuola Archeologica Italiana di Atene; Ινστιτούτο Ελληνικής και Ρωμαϊκής Αρχαιότητος (Ε.Ι.Ε.), 2009


The Programme profits of a large network of collaborations, both at a national level (archaeological ephorates of the Greek Ministry of Culture, Archaeological Society of Athens, Archaeological Institute of Aegean Studies in Rhodes, the Democritus Research Centre in Athens, as well as Greek Universities and the Foreign Archeological Schools at Athens) and at an international level (Universities of Bordeaux III, Besancon, Paris I, Nancy 2, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Rome "La Sapienza", Salerno, Potenza-Matera, Padova, Lecce, Nottingham, the Istituto per gli Studi Micenei ed Egeo-anatolici in Rome and L'Annee Epigraphique). Members of the Programme have participated in projects involving bilateral or international research collaboration (with Universities Bordeaux III and Lubliana, with L'Annee Epigraphique and Archaeological Institute of Tirana) as well as in Programmes financed by the European Community (Populus, Cost G2, Human Capital and Mobility, PENED, ARISTEIA Ι and ΙΙ, THALES, PLATON, Marie Curie, KREPIS).


  • Technology and measurement in linear B script: products (and quantities) recorded with their weight
  • Metals management in the Mycenean palatial administrations: Linear B tablets which record metals
  • Metals management in an urban context: bronze findings from Akrotiri on Thera
  • Technology and writing: potters' signs in Akrotiri on Thera
  • Bibliographical database of the written and material evidence on the pre-numismatic economies of the Bronze Age in the Aegean and the Near East
  • The metrical system in Akrotiri on Thera: weights from the settlement of Akrotiri
  • Coin circulation in the imperial period in western Greece
  • Coin circulation in the imperial period in the province of Achaia
  • Coin minting in the imperial period in the Cyclades
  • Italiotai and Rhomaioi in the Greek cities from the 3rd c. BC onwards
  • Prosopography of priests in Greece during the imperial period


Prizes – Distinctions

Lina Mendoni: Medal of Commendatore (II Classe), Ordine della Stella della Solidarieta Italiana










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